The Reserve lies within the arid and semi-arid climatic condition. It is bordered by the Ewaso Nyiro River to the South and also which separates it from the Buffalo springs National Reserve.
The reserve boasts of the Samburu Six (rare northern specialist species) such as the Somali Ostrich, Grevy Zebra, Gerenuk, The Beisa Oryx (Samburu Special), Guenther’s Dik Dik and the Reticulated Giraffe.
The reserve is also home to large herds of Elephants while predators like the Lion, Cheetah and Leopard can be spotted in this rugged terrain. Samburu National Reserve is also a birding spot having over 450 species of birds.